## About Newton's Laws

Newton’s Laws

My simulations are governed by Newton’s laws. I do not program them to be hard or easy, but make them realistically follow the principle set forth by Newton. Flat space simply refers to gravity free space and is play on Einstein’s assertion that gravity results from matter curving the fabric of space. You do not need to understand the general theory of relativity to navigate my virtual spaceship. My first lecture and probably your first lecture on the laws of motion probably began with a dot on a blackboard called Mass and the formulas F = ma and distance = v X t. Force, acceleration, and mass were studied prior to the study of gravity. My simulations follow this scheme of teaching laws of motion. I start with flat (or gravity free space, followed by motion in a constant gravitational field. Deep Space North deals with motion in a variable gravitational field, but permits you to travel so far from earth that the effects of gravity are negligible. Select

The Flat Space simulation allows you to move about all four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system. Flat space simply refers to gravity free space and is play on Einstein’s assertion that gravity results from matter curving the fabric of space. You will be able to navigate your virtual spacecraft through all four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system. You will note that Newton’s first law , stating that a mass in motion will continue in motion indefinitely, makes it necessary to engage engines simply to stop or change direction. You can experience this by navigating the space ship around coodinate 0.0. Navigating thru all four quadrants is more like an exercise in trigonometry and vectors, than it is an exercise in physics.

The Flatspace game is also an intercept exercise. You will note that everytime you click the ENTER SHIP ORIENTATION AND ENGINE BURN DURATION button a popup message appears. The popup message gives you the range and azimuth of a target that you are to intercept. Intercept target without passing it in x direction. Getting within ten kilometers of target can be thought of as an intercept.

In the Acceleration and gravity simulation you get to take off and land a spaceship in a constant gravitational field. You will find taking off and landing without crashing is a tricky exercise.

In this simulation gravity varies with elevation. You launch straight up from the earth’s north pole and can travel a million kilometers away from earth where gravity is nearly zero.

My simulations are governed by Newton’s laws. I do not program them to be hard or easy, but make them realistically follow the principle set forth by Newton. Flat space simply refers to gravity free space and is play on Einstein’s assertion that gravity results from matter curving the fabric of space. You do not need to understand the general theory of relativity to navigate my virtual spaceship. My first lecture and probably your first lecture on the laws of motion probably began with a dot on a blackboard called Mass and the formulas F = ma and distance = v X t. Force, acceleration, and mass were studied prior to the study of gravity. My simulations follow this scheme of teaching laws of motion. I start with flat (or gravity free space, followed by motion in a constant gravitational field. Deep Space North deals with motion in a variable gravitational field, but permits you to travel so far from earth that the effects of gravity are negligible. Select

__Flat space__or__Acceleration and Gravity__or__Deep Space North____Flat space__The Flat Space simulation allows you to move about all four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system. Flat space simply refers to gravity free space and is play on Einstein’s assertion that gravity results from matter curving the fabric of space. You will be able to navigate your virtual spacecraft through all four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system. You will note that Newton’s first law , stating that a mass in motion will continue in motion indefinitely, makes it necessary to engage engines simply to stop or change direction. You can experience this by navigating the space ship around coodinate 0.0. Navigating thru all four quadrants is more like an exercise in trigonometry and vectors, than it is an exercise in physics.

The Flatspace game is also an intercept exercise. You will note that everytime you click the ENTER SHIP ORIENTATION AND ENGINE BURN DURATION button a popup message appears. The popup message gives you the range and azimuth of a target that you are to intercept. Intercept target without passing it in x direction. Getting within ten kilometers of target can be thought of as an intercept.

__Acceleration and Gravity__In the Acceleration and gravity simulation you get to take off and land a spaceship in a constant gravitational field. You will find taking off and landing without crashing is a tricky exercise.

__Deep Space North__In this simulation gravity varies with elevation. You launch straight up from the earth’s north pole and can travel a million kilometers away from earth where gravity is nearly zero.

The spaceship drawing above was produced by the extrusion of two dimensional geometric forms. The boiler, for example , is the extrusion of a circle to a sphere. The drawing serves as both as a schematic of a heat engine and a three dimensional view of spaceship. The Ion thrusters are the only system component shown that are not part of the heat engine.

Above we see a diagram of the heat engine being tested and calibrated in the Heat Engine chapter of the physics section. Note that the input to the boiler is electricity so power input to this heat engine could be precisely measured with a power meter.

## Black Hole Sensor:

The strength of a gravitational field on the surface of any planet can be measured with a pendulum. If you knew the dimensions of the planet you could calculate the mass of the planet. A space ship that maintained a safe constant distance from a black hole could measure the mass gravitational field strength of the black holw using a pendulum. With optical star navigation one could determine the distance to the black hole and then determine the mass of the black hole.