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Chapter 16


Semiconductors are sometimes referred to as computer chips or integrated circuits. They contain numerous electrical pathways which connect thousands or even millions of transistors and other electronic components. 


"The wafer growing process is similar to crystal growing experiments that most of us did at school. A seed crystal of silicon is immersed in a bath of molten silicon. It is slowly pulled out, and because crystal growth occurs uniformly in all directions, the cross section is circular and, as it is pulled, it forms a cylindrical ingot of pure silicon. The ingot pulling process lasts for almost 24 hours and produces a cylinder of diameter larger than is desired. The ingot is ground down to the required diameter, and then is sliced into individual wafers." from Infrastructure .





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