Electricity Basics

Home ] What's New ] [ Electricity Basics ] Ohms Law ] DC Circuits ] AC circuits ] Diodes ] Transistors ] Operational Amplifiers ] Introduction to IT ] Digital Electronics ] Microprocessor ] JavaScript ] Internet Technology ]

About my Free Virtual Learning System (VLS).  Please provide feedback via      

Virtual Skill testing + Virtual Laboratory Experience + Links to Top Theory Sites = Best Free Online VLS.

This course is a Virtual Laboratory tutorial in electronics.  Over the last decade,  I have produced a set of free online circuit simulations and animations that constitute a interactive virtual laboratory for students studying electronics or preparing for an IT career .  My virtual interactive circuit troubleshooting exercises cover only a small sample of circuits covered in must texts or college courses. This selection of circuits ranges from simple resistive circuits thru advanced operational amplifiers, digital circuits and computers .   I believe that those who  master troubleshooting my narrow range of virtual circuits or systems will develop the skills necessary to troubleshoot a wide range of circuits and systems that they will be confronted with now and in the future.  I feel quite certain that someone who could not perform the majority of my virtual troubleshooting exercises would be in need of further training in order to become a competent electronics troubleshooter.  This person could benefit from my free virtual laboratory course. 

I provide a reading list for each topic that a student can use to learn the relevant subject matter.  This site and my virtual electronics kits test your electronics skill.  My digital simulations create screens of data in binary format that show the status of my virtual computer and many digital circuits.    



Lecture Text, Electricity


Free Class Books
(PDF files)

Electronic Concepts

Force Fields Visualized


My Free Online e-Books(Webs)

  Basic Electronics

 Electronic Troubleshooting

  Gif Circuits

Electronic Circuits with Faults 


My Free Downloads 

 Virtual electronic kits




Site Linker
Our optional reading list.
Site Linker allow me to check all the links that several of my Web site uses at a single location.






Charge , Fields, Voltage, Current, and Beams

Main Points

1. Current flows in the direction of E field.  That is it flows from positive to negative potential.

2. Current normally flows in the direction of arrows on transistors and diode symbols.

3. Current in wire and resistors is due solely to electron flow.

4. Current in transistor and diodes is due to hole flow (positively charged molecules)

5. Positive charged particles flow in the direction of current and E fields.

6. Negative charged particles flow in opposite direction of current or E fields.

7. The EMF  of a battery forces positive ions to move to the positive plate of a battery 

8. The EMF of a battery forces negative ions to move to the negative plate of a battery.

9. If a wire or resistor is placed between the terminals of battery electrons will flow from the negative to the positive terminal. (Which is in the opposite direction of conventional current flow.)

10.0. Holes (positively charged molecules) in silicon crystal lattice carry charge in semiconductors and move in direction of current. Current is in the direction of E field. Current direction is indicated by direction of arrow on transistor or diode symbol. The arrow points in the direction conventional current.  Electrons flow in the opposite direction of arrow.



If you had trouble understanding this page you may want to read lecture text before proceeding to next lecture.


To get quick overview of my course go Radio Slide Show  and download Audio Version of Electronic Concepts and sit back and listen 40 minute lecture covering the analog portion of my WEB.



Reading Assignment (Links) Below:

Read Site Linker 6 Read "What is Charge" thru "Batteries"

Read Site Linker 23 Read topic current and Charge

Read Site Linker 77 Electromagnetism

Read Site Linker 178 Introduction to Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry


Next Lesson


FREE: Click on Practical Electronic for Inventors  below and then click "Look Inside" and read pages 5-34 for free.





Electronics, Physics, Mathematics  for the vocational student:  Tutorial provides unique non-engineering, calculus free technical education.   Click here to see all our publications                   

Questions or problems regarding this web site should be directed to BilPat4342@AOL.com

Copyright © 2003 Science Ebooks,  All rights reserved.
Last modified: Monday July 07, 2014.