A  Science and Technology Odyssey in Cyberspace-Time 
20000 BC to 1800 AD
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Time Period

Title Page



1500 - 1699

1700 - 1800



Back to Timeline 20000 B.C. thru 301 B.C.

Copper and Bronze

Primitive Man was able able to cut copper or gold directly from Ore and fashion trinkets from these metals. About 4000 BC the Egyptians learned how to smelt copper, silver, and Gold.  Tool, utensils and even weapons could be made from these soft metals. Several centuries later tin was combined with copper to form a much harder alloy; namely, Brass.  Brass became the dominant metal for use in weapons and tools until 1400 BC, when it was replaced by still harder iron. 




"There are many riddles connected with ancient metallurgy, starting with how smelting was discovered at all. The campfire theory holds that ores were accidentally used to build stone enclosures around cooking fires, and that people noticed new metals appearing from the ashes. This process may have worked for lead and mercury, which are easily smelted from their ores at low temperatures. However, temperatures are not high enough in campfires to smelt copper, and certainly not iron....." from Legacy of the Ancient World


Egyptian Tools (Wood, Stone, Copper and Iron)




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